İstinye Park in İstinye and Zorlu Center near Levent are among the newest malls which include the stores of the world's top fashion brands. Along İstiklal Avenue is the Çiçek Pasajı (Flower Passage), a 19th-century shopping gallery which is today home to winehouses (known as meyhanes), pubs and restaurants.  İstiklal Avenue, originally known for its taverns, has shifted toward shopping, but the nearby Nevizade Street is still lined with winehouses and pubs.  Some other neighborhoods around İstiklal Avenue have been revamped to cater to Beyoğlu's nightlife, with formerly commercial streets now lined with pubs, cafes, and restaurants playing live music.  Istanbul is known for its historic seafood restaurants.
Popular during the summer among Istanbulites is Belgrad Forest, spreading across 5, 500 hectares (14, 000 acres) at the northern edge of the city. The forest originally supplied water to the city and remnants of reservoirs used during Byzantine and Ottoman times survive.  Architecture Istanbul is primarily known for its Byzantine and Ottoman architecture. Despite its development as a Turkish city since 1453, it contains many ancient, Roman, Byzantine, Christian, Muslim, and Jewish monuments. The Neolithic settlement in the Yenikapı quarter on the European side, which dates back to c. 6500 BCE and predates the formation of the Bosporus strait by approximately a millennium (when the Sea of Marmara was still a lake) was discovered during the construction of the Marmaray railway tunnel.
ISBN 978-92-64-04383-1. ^ a b c "Forum of Constantine". www. byzantium1200. com. Retrieved 31 January 2021. ^ a b c d Room 2006, p. 177 ^ Georgacas 1947, p. 352ff. ^ Necipoğlu 2010, p. 262. ^ Necdet Sakaoğlu (1993/94a): "İstanbul'un adları" ["The names of Istanbul"]. In: Dünden bugüne İstanbul ansiklopedisi, ed. Türkiye Kültür Bakanlığı, Istanbul. ^ Grosvenor, Edwin Augustus (1895). Constantinople. Vol. 1. Roberts Brothers. p.
(2011). "Holocene coastal change in the ancient harbor of Yenikapı–İstanbul and its impact on cultural history". Quaternary Research. 76 (1): 30. Bibcode:2011QuRes.. 76... 30A. doi:10. 1016/j. yqres. 2011. 04. 002. S2CID 129280217. ^ "Bu keşif tarihi değiştirir". hurriyet. tr. ^ "Marmaray kazılarında tarih gün ışığına çıktı". fotogaleri. tr. ^ "Cultural Details of Istanbul". Republic of Turkey, Minister of Culture and Tourism. Archived from the original on 12 September 2007. Retrieved 2 October 2007. ^ Janin, Raymond (1964). Constantinople byzantine. Paris: Institut Français d'Études Byzantines. pp.
 They continue to live in Istanbul (mostly in Karaköy, Beyoğlu and Nişantaşı), and Izmir (mostly in Karşıyaka, Bornova and Buca). Istanbul became one of the world's most important Jewish centers in the 16th and 17th century.  Romaniote and Ashkenazi communities existed in Istanbul before the conquest of Istanbul, but it was the arrival of Sephardic Jews that ushered a period of cultural flourishing. Sephardic Jews settled in the city after their expulsion from Spain and Portugal in 1492 and 1497.  Sympathetic to the plight of Sephardic Jews, Bayezid II sent out the Ottoman Navy under the command of admiral Kemal Reis to Spain in 1492 in order to evacuate them safely to Ottoman lands.
69. Retrieved 15 March 2021. ^ Finkel 2005, pp. 57, 383. ^ Göksel & Kerslake 2005, p. 27. ^ Keyder 1999, p. 95. ^ a b c d e Rainsford, Sarah (10 January 2009). "Istanbul's ancient past unearthed". bbc. BBC. Retrieved 29 May 2021. ^ Algan, O. ; Yalçın, M. N. K. ; Özdoğan, M. ; Yılmaz, Y. C. ; Sarı, E. ; Kırcı-Elmas, E. ; Yılmaz, İ. ; Bulkan, Ö. ; Ongan, D. ; Gazioğlu, C. ; Nazik, A. ; Polat, M. A. ; Meriç, E.
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Chandler disagrees with Turan 2010 on the population of the city in the mid-1920s (with the former suggesting 817, 000 in 1925), but Turan, p. 224, is used as the source of population figures between 1924 and 2005. Turan's figures, as well as the 2010 figure,  come from the Turkish Statistical Institute. The drastic increase in population between 1980 and 1985 is largely due to an enlargement of the city's limits (see the Administration section). Explanations for population changes in pre-Republic times can be inferred from the History section.
Climate Istanbul has a borderline Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csa, Trewartha Cs), humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa, Trewartha Cf) and oceanic climate (Köppen Cfb, Trewartha Do) under both classifications. It experiences cool winters with frequent precipitation, and warm to hot (mean temperature peaking at 20 °C (68 °F) to 25 °C (77 °F) in August, depending on location), moderately dry summers.  Spring and fall are usually mild, with varying conditions dependent on wind direction.  Istanbul's weather is strongly influenced by the Sea of Marmara to the south, and the Black Sea to the north. This moderates temperature swings and produces a mild temperate climate with low diurnal temperature variation.
 Five years later, Severus began to rebuild Byzantium, and the city regained—and, by some accounts, surpassed—its previous prosperity.  Rise and fall of Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire Constantine the Great effectively became the emperor of the whole of the Roman Empire in September 324.  Two months later, he laid out the plans for a new, Christian city to replace Byzantium.
^ a b Masters & Ágoston 2009, pp. 114–15 ^ a b "Top city destinations by overnight visitors". Statista. Retrieved 1 December 2020. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Heper, Metin (2018). "Istanbul". Historical dictionary of Turkey (4th ed. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-5381-0224-4. ^ a b OECD Territorial Reviews: Istanbul, Turkey. Policy Briefs. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. March 2008.
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Istanbul - Wikipedia Istanbul formerly known as Constantinople, is the largest city in Turkey, serving as the country's economic, cultural and historic
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 Numerous churches were built across the city, including Hagia Sophia which was built during the reign of Justinian the Great and remained the world's largest cathedral for a thousand years.  Constantine also undertook a major renovation and expansion of the Hippodrome of Constantinople; accommodating tens of thousands of spectators, the hippodrome became central to civic life and, in the 5th and 6th centuries, the center of episodes of unrest, including the Nika riots.  Constantinople's location also ensured its existence would stand the test of time; for many centuries, its walls and seafront protected Europe against invaders from the east and the advance of Islam.
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